Tuesday, January 26, 2010

IMF Executive Board Concludes 2009 Article IV Consultation with Fiji [ref IMF Site]

IMF Executive Board Concludes 2009 Article IV Consultation with Fiji Public Information Notice (PIN) No. 10/11January 25, 2010

Public Information Notices (PINs) form part of the IMF's efforts to promote transparency of the IMF's views and analysis of economic developments and policies. With the consent of the country (or countries) concerned, PINs are issued after Executive Board discussions of Article IV consultations with member countries, of its surveillance of developments at the regional level, of post-program monitoring, and of ex post assessments of member countries with longer-term program engagements. PINs are also issued after Executive Board discussions of general policy matters, unless otherwise decided by the Executive Board in a particular case.
On January 11, 2010, the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) concluded the Article IV consultation with Fiji.
1
Background
Growth has been sluggish in recent years because of delays in economic reforms, worsening terms of trade, and political developments that have strained Fiji’s international relations and hurt business confidence. Fiji’s economy is expected to have contracted by 2½ percent in 2009, reflecting the adverse impact of the global crisis on exports and tourism. The economy was also hit by flooding in January 2009 that damaged tourism, crops, and infrastructure. As a result of slow growth, the unemployment rate rose to 8½ percent, and would have been higher if not for an increase in emigration.


The real effective exchange rate appreciated by 10 percent between 2000 and 2008 as the terms of trade deteriorated by 15 percent because of lower export prices for sugar and higher oil prices. The current account deficit widened from 4 percent to 18 percent of GDP over the same period, and in early 2009, foreign exchange reserves fell to US$300 million, less than two months of imports. In April 2009, the Reserve Bank of Fiji (RBF) devalued the currency by 20 percent and intensified exchange controls. Following the devaluation, weak economic activity and lower commodity prices helped contain inflation.

Tourist arrivals fell by almost 25 percent year-on-year in early 2009 because of the global crisis and January floods. However, tourism recovered mid-year, as the devaluation of the Fijian dollar against the Australian dollar made Fiji a more attractive destination.
Foreign exchange reserves doubled between April and November 2009, to reach US$593 million, almost four months of imports, explained by a pickup in remittances and an improvement in the trade balance. About half of the increase was also explained by the SDR allocation (US$93 million) and repatriation of foreign assets of the Fiji National Provident Fund (FNPF, a public pension fund). Despite high current account deficits in recent years, external debt is low at 13 percent of GDP in 2008, as deficits were financed mainly by foreign direct investment (FDI) in the tourism sector.

Recent developments have put considerable pressure on the budget. Tax revenue was hit by the fall in economic activity, with a shortfall of about 10 percent relative to the budget in the first 10 months of the year. Government restrained current spending, including by containing wage increases, and the fiscal deficit increased to about 3 percent of GDP in 2009 from near balance in 2008, in line with the budget. Central government debt is expected to rise to 53 percent of GDP by end 2009. Central government guarantees of public enterprise debt and contingent liabilities arising from poor performance of public enterprises amount to about 70 percent of GDP (excluding the public pension fund).

Bank liquidity has risen sharply in recent months to more than 13 percent of deposits as foreign exchange reserves have recovered. However, credit growth is likely to have contracted in real terms in 2009, as banks took a cautious approach in light of heightened political and economic uncertainties. The RBF increased the statutory reserve requirement on banks from 5 percent to 7 percent of deposits to reduce excess liquidity. It has also removed bank-by-bank credit ceilings and announced the removal of ceilings on banks’ lending rates and spreads by January 2010.
Executive Board Assessment

Executive Directors noted that Fiji’s economic performance in recent years has been negatively affected by a difficult political situation, delayed structural reforms, natural disasters, and the global crisis. Faced with increasing budget pressures, the authorities have made commendable efforts to restrain current spending and limit the overall fiscal deficit in 2009, while the devaluation of the Fijian dollar has helped reverse the sharp decline in foreign exchange reserves. The economic situation nevertheless remains challenging, and downside risks remain high. Directors therefore stressed the need for further decisive actions to restore macroeconomic stability and implement structural reforms needed to lift growth and ensure debt sustainability over the medium-term.

Directors agreed that a substantial reduction in the fiscal deficit is necessary to ensure macroeconomic stability and stabilize public debt. While acknowledging the difficult economic situation, most Directors recommended a faster pace of consolidation starting from 2010 than is currently envisaged. They considered that infrastructure rebuilding needs should be offset by expenditure measures, including civil service reform, while revenue could be strengthened by rationalizing tax incentives, improving tax administration and raising excise taxes. Directors encouraged the authorities to adhere to their earlier target of reducing central government debt to 45 percent of GDP by 2014.

Directors supported a tight monetary policy to ensure that inflation returns to low levels and to protect foreign exchange reserves. They welcomed the recent increase in the statutory reserve deposit ratio and the removal of ceilings on bank lending rates and spreads, and called for further measures as needed to absorb excess liquidity.

Directors encouraged the authorities to move toward a more flexible exchange rate. They considered that the shift to a more flexible exchange rate regime will help Fiji absorb external shocks and protect its reserve position. Directors noted that exchange rate flexibility should be accompanied by a strengthening of monetary and fiscal policies.

Directors welcomed recent improvements in bank supervision. They expressed concern about the vulnerability to adverse shocks of some smaller banks and recommended remedial action where appropriate. Directors called for fundamental reform of the FNPF. In particular, they stressed the importance of measures to put the FNPF on a sound actuarial footing, of an independent management responsible to beneficiaries, and of strengthened supervisory oversight.

Directors considered that structural reforms are crucial to ensure fiscal sustainability, address competiveness problems, lift potential growth and create jobs. They called for well-designed reforms of the civil service, of the public enterprises with a view to eventual privatization, and of the land-lease system, accompanied by price liberalization. Well-targeted measures should help address the social impact of these reforms.

Directors welcomed the authorities’ intention to work closely with the Fund on the design and implementation of their economic policies. They noted that a Fund-supported program would require continued strong commitment to macroeconomic adjustment and structural reforms to address remaining vulnerabilities, close the external financing gap, and attract donor support.
Fiji: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators: 2006-2010
Nominal GDP (2008):
US$3.6 billion

Population (2008):
843 thousand

GDP per capita (2008)
US$4,237

Quota:
SDR 70.3 million

2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

Prel.
Est.
Proj.

Real Sector (percent change)

Real GDP growth

1.9
-0.5
-0.1
-2.5
2.0
Consumer prices (average)

2.5
4.8
7.8
4.0
5.0
Consumer prices (end of period)
3.1
4.3
6.6
6.7
3.0

Central government operations (percent of GDP)

Revenue and grants

26.1
25.4
24.8
23.1
23.0
Total expenditure

29.0
27.0
25.0
26.0
26.4
Overall balance

-3.0
-1.6
-0.2
-2.9
-3.5
Total debt outstanding

53.1
49.9
51.2
52.7
53.2

Money and credit (percent change)

Broad money (M2)

19.8
10.4
-6.9
1.9
4.8
Credit to the private sector

23.7
2.8
11.2
4.0
5.0
Treasury bill rate (91-day) 1/

10.9
0.3
0.5
7.0

Commercial bank lending rate 1/
7.9
8.5
7.7
7.6


Balance of Payments (millions of U.S. dollars)

Current account balance

-582
-463
-640
-297
-493
(In percent of GDP)

-18.7
-13.6
-17.9
-9.5
-16.0
Trade balance

-897
-842
-1,108
-714
-812
Exports

729
787
944
637
673
Imports

1,626
1,629
2,052
1,351
1,485
Tourism receipts

433
434
483
368
406
Foreign direct investment

415
329
313
263
264
Overall balance

145
91
-169
219
-156

Reserves and external debt (millions of U.S. dollars)

Gross official reserves

460
551
381
600
561
(In months of retained imports)
2.9
2.7
2.5
3.9
3.5
External debt 2/

445
461
449
378
517
(In percent of GDP) 2/

14.4
13.5
12.6
12.1
16.9
Central government external debt (percent of GDP)
7.8
7.2
8.4
7.5
8.3

Exchange rate

Fiji dollars per US dollar, end of period
1.7
1.6
1.8
1.9

REER (2000=100, end period) 3/
106.9
109.9
114.4
90.2

Sources: Data provided by the Fijian authorities; and staff estimates and projections.
1/ For 2009, interest rates as of September.
2/ For 2010, it includes BOP support to fund a US$120 million financing gap.
3/ For 2009, REER as of June.
1 Under Article IV of the IMF's Articles of Agreement, the IMF holds bilateral discussions with members, usually every year. A staff team visits the country, collects economic and financial information, and discusses with officials the country's economic developments and policies. On return to headquarters, the staff prepares a report, which forms the basis for discussion by the Executive Board. At the conclusion of the discussion, the Managing Director, as Chairman of the Board, summarizes the views of Executive Directors, and this summary is transmitted to the country's authorities. An explanation of any qualifiers used in summings up can be found here: http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/misc/qualifiers.htm.
IMF EXTERNAL RELATIONS DEPARTMENT
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Media Relations
Phone:
202-623-7300
Phone:
202-623-7100
Fax:
202-623-6278
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202-623-6772



1 comment:

  1. $40m debt
    Elenoa Baselala
    Wednesday, January 27, 2010

    "Housing Authority chases defaulters"

    THE last three months have seen the Housing Authority's non-performing accounts soar over $40million.

    This is an increase of almost $10m from the estimated $30m-plus in October.

    Authority chairman Lieutenant Colonel Pio Tikoduadua has urged customers to honour their agreements and pay up.

    "The non-performing accounts have been accumulating for a long time," Lt-Col Tikoduadua said.

    "We need people to be good customers, to reciprocate the goodwill in offering affordable housing to them.

    "Whilst our obligation is to look after the lower end in terms of housing, we need them to do their bit as well," he said.

    In October last year, the non-performing accounts were estimated to be over $30m while arrears were around $5m.

    Non-performing accounts are those that are in arrears for over 90 days while arrears are default payments of less than 90 days.

    It is estimated that at least 25 per cent of the customer base were non-performing accounts.

    Lt-Col Tikoduadua rejected suggestions that the review of the HA managers' contracts were due to non-performing accounts.

    He said this was in preparation for the merger of the HA and PRB, which had separated in 1989 after the HA experienced financial constraints due to its charging uneconomic rental rates for low income earners.

    Lt-Col Tikoduadua agreed they were greatly challenged as their mission was to house people. While it is trying to recover its debts, the HA is also constrained by its new software system purchased from India which has not been working properly.

    As a result, customers have not received their statements since February last year. He said they were looking into the issue.
    http://www.fijitimes.com/story.aspx?id=138428

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